We can take the candle flame meditation a bit deeper in terms of experience.
Notice is that after studying the flame for several minutes, intently, and with minimal blinking, it will appear either in the mind’s eye or vividly against a white wall [look away from the candle in this last instant] in reversed colors. A yellow candle flame will appear blue-ish or purple-ish. You can test this with various other objects, as was done both in the Indian Tattwa meditations, and in some Western practices as well. If you focus attention, as an example, on a red triangle, the afterimage on a white wall or in the mind, will be green. You do have to stare intently without much eye movement for a minimum of 30 to 60 seconds.
The Golden Dawn and other groups made intense meditation diagrams using these complementary colors together. They referred to them as “flashing colors.” You can experience the intensity, for example, by drawing or printing a bright red triangle upon a bright deep green background. In using this object for visual meditative practice, the red triangle will jump out at you during the eyes open contemplation due to the maximal contrast between foreground and background. You can create any object at this intensity by using the exact complementary color as a background to the color of the object. This effect can be so jarring than many artists painting in a more subtle style will avoid the exact complementary color as being too bold.
To move away from breath based exercises for awhile: here is a meditation loosely based upon a meditation from the yogic traditions that has the potential of leading to rather profound results.
Take a few moments to relax and allow your breathing to become calm and regular, but don’t really focus upon it.
After you’ve allowed some space from the immediate concerns of life, focus upon your foot with as much mental clarity as possible, but certainly don’t allow frustration to develop over lack of absolute clarity. Once the idea of your foot occupies your mind, mentally say to yourself: “This foot is not me. If I was without this foot I would still be me. What then am I?” During the final part of this mental statement, imagine that your foot disappears. Repeat this sequence with each area of the body: the other foot, the calves, the thighs, etc., up to and including the head, face and brain.
What is “I” in absence of the brain. . . . . ?
What insights arise from this exercise after a few weeks of daily practice?
The alchemical tradition from the Western perspective developed a philosophy and system of spiritual growth which was shrouded in symbolism. Part of the reason much of the material from that time was communicated in such symbolically dense terminology was the need to hide the true meaning from church authorities. The work of Carl Jung, M.D., in the early twentieth century led to the revitalization of much of the symbolism and artwork of the alchemists. His suggestion was that the alchemists were encoding deep psychological symbolism in the spiritual imagery.
Many of the diagrams and images developed by the alchemists showed mandala-like patterns that were quite similar in form to the Yantras from Eastern paths. These images tend to flood the mind with symbolic expression, such as the image of the Azoth shown below. It can be used as a focus of meditation, much like the Yantra image from an earlier post.
The four fold symmetry, three fold symmetry and seven fold symmetry have specific meanings the alchemical literature. Dennis Haucks “The Emerald Tablet” is one of the most user friendly books to introduce the layers of meaning.
The aspect of focusing on mental repetition of words or phrases may be combined with focus upon an external image. In Eastern traditions, this may take a Mandala form, such as the Shri Yantra, below. To use this form of visual meditation, focus your attention on the central [bindu] point and allow your eyes to soft focus. Try to minimize blinking, but don’t let your eyes get too dry. When combined with a mantra, this can be a powerful tool to focus attention and still the mind.
Another quite common meditative practice across multiple traditions worldwide is the repetition of a word or short phrase. In the yogic traditions this referred to as a mantra based meditation. In the Christian versions, it is called contemplative prayer. This is the form of meditation practiced in Transcendental Meditation, with the mantra in this case given in the course of training.
The practice consists of choosing a word or phrase, and then allowing it to flow gently through your mind in a repetitive manner. When other thoughts enter awareness, and they will, gently bring back awareness to the word or phrase. Sounds simple! Hardly. Once the practice starts, the mind begins to bombard you with random impressions which form distractions. This is normal, though. No reason to become upset or feel that you’re failing, just gently bring focus back to the word or phrase. Try for twenty minutes once or twice daily. Monitor your results over weeks or months.
Although the contemplative prayer version of this meditation uses some form of phrase in your native language that has a religious connotation, most people find the practice more effective if they choose sounds without immediate meaning attached. Sounds that end with …..MMMMMM are more relaxing for many. Hence OMMM or AAUUUMMM can be excellent choices, or a brief phrase such as OM MANI PADME HUM is quite popular. Use any phrase you like, but try different sounds and see which work best for you.
One of the common experiences when practicing concentration type meditation, such as the breath exercise, is the intrusion of thoughts, memories, or impressions that distract your mind from the practice itself. This simple meditation exercise transforms what would otherwise be a distraction into the focus of the meditation itself. You can compare the experience of this technique with the previous, remembering to use it daily.
Sit or recline in a comfortable, stable position. Close your eyes, and let your breath flow naturally. Allow any thoughts or impressions to enter your mind as they arise. Try to simply observe the thought, and allow it to float away, much like a bubble in an aquarium. More thoughts will arise, and repeat the process. If all is simply stillness or blackness, consider that a thought as well, and let it flow away. Try to avoid attachment to any of the thoughts, and simply let them each float away. The experience should demonstrate the fleeting nature of thoughts and feelings, and this becomes more powerful if you don’t become emotionally attached to the material. Each thought should be released as easily as a bubble floating away.
Back in undergraduate school, I had the opportunity to take a class in Transcendental Meditation [TM], over a weekend during my freshman year. The concept that a simple practice could have potentially profound effects on both the physiology and psychology of a person was a stunning idea back then. The weekend progressed with lessons, audio tapes of the founder, and eventually the private revealing of the secret mantra alleged to be somehow specially chosen for me. A fellow classmate and I faithfully met each morning for the rest of the academic year and spent the twenty minutes in silent meditation. We figured that if we practiced together it would increase our likelihood of making the practice regular. I noticed throughout the year that I generally felt more relaxed and found the practice useful.
An equally profound realization crystalized later in the year, however, when attending a class led by the priest of our local Episcopal Church. He had described this as a course which would demonstrate a different form of prayer, called contemplative prayer, distinctly different from the more recognized prayer of petition common in church services. The Reverend at least provided some information that this earlier form of prayer had been quite central to the practice of early Christianity. As that weekend class continued, it became rapidly clear that the actual practice of contemplative prayer was in virtually every way identical to that of TM. The focus of contemplative prayer was a short phrase silently repeated, a mantra, but one in English.
What was special about this practice of quiet mental repetition? How or why did traditions so disparate as Hinduism and Christianity feature a practice identical except in the phrase of repetition itself. What kinds of benefits might accrue from such a practice? Does science have any information to bear on such an esoteric topic? What exactly is meditation, and what is the range of meditative practice? Good questions, and few enough answers.
This is a practice designed both as a meditative practice and as a means of further developing the faculty of concentration.
Place a lit candle at approximately eye level and darken the room appropriately. Find a comfortable position and focus complete concentration on the candle flame.
If you keep your eyes open, you mind observe a sensation of merging with the flame. If you close your eyes, focus upon the after-image in your mind and try to maintain that image as a visualization exercise.
After some practice with these basic exercises, you may wish to extend the visualization with eyes closed of the flame of light growing and encompassing your body. This can be imagined as purifying and as protective.
Although epiphenomenalism may be assumed true by both doctors and patients alike, since it seems to match data related to impaired neurological function, some of the research in neuroplasticity refutes the entire concept of epiphenomenalism. Early research demonstrated that when people learn new skills, such as typing or piano, that areas of the motor cortex of the brain actually increase in size to match. Later research demonstrated new brain connections, after some forms of brain injury, sometimes form to areas of the brain which would otherwise have processed information from different areas of function. This process actually restores the lost functioning, even with different areas of the brain processing the information.
Although these studies were fascinating as they showed the neuronal connections and biological functioning of the brain changed as a result of essentially newly learned tasks, some researchers minimized the results with arguments that this was largely a unique ability for repair following injury. One of the more recent studies was a true paradigm changer. In this research, Tibetan Buddhist monks participated in functional brain imaging studies while practicing a compassion based meditation technique. The finding was astounding: monks showed a novel Gamma brainwave pattern in the frontal lobe, which correlated with the subjective sense of blissfulness. This brainwave pattern had never been seen in any non-pathological state before, and its presence and strength was only related to the number of hours of meditative practice. No other demographic factors correlated with the finding, which suggested a clear circumstance in which willed meditative practice altered brain function over extended practice.
Since epiphenomenalism requires that mental process is only an accidental byproduct of neuronal firing, there is no conceivable way that mental process could actually effect the biological structure. This latest research proves just the opposite: that mental process changes the biology of the brain. Clearly then, any form of biological monism cannot account for this research finding. A different model is needed which accounts for the research data.
The threefold breath meditation adds a phase in that the peak of inhalation is held for a bit. Typically the pattern is to hold your breath four times longer than the inhalation, and to exhale for a time period double that of the inhalation. As an example, breath in to the count of 4, hold the breath for a count of 16, and exhale to the count of 8. If this is too difficult, then reduce the count of the inhalation, and then keep the ratios the same. Other examples could be 3:12:6, or later in the practice 5:20:10. Take it easy during practice: try to get full inhalation and full exhalation, but don’t strain, and don’t exhaust your muscles. It may take time to build this practice comfortably, and will certainly take weeks of practice to see results. You will likely feel warmer while doing this practice. Observe your experience during each phase, and monitor your impressions. Using a metronome may help the cycle be more regular.